Consumer Behaviour

The Consumer Market comprises all individuals and households who buy or acquire goods and services for personal consumption – for themselves, family, guests, relatives, friends.Consumer Buying Behaviour refers to the buying behaviour of final consumers (individuals & households) who buy goods and services for personal consumption. We need to understand consumer behaviour to answer the question: “How do consumers respond to marketing efforts the company might use?”The buying Decision Process consists of five steps: Recognition of Need, Information Search, Evaluation of Alternatives, Purchase Decision and Post-Purchase Behaviour / Evaluation.Factors Influencing Consumer BehaviourPersonal Factors
Life cycle stage
Economic situation
Personality & Self Concept
Life style identificationPsychological Factors
Motivation: a need becomes a motive when it is strong enough to propel us to act, to seek satisfaction
Perception: process by which we select, organize and interpret information to form a picture of the world
Learning: changes in behaviour arising from experience
Beliefs: a descriptive thought about something
Attitudes: consistent / enduring favourable / unfavourable evaluations, feelings, and tendencies towards somethingFreud’s Theory: A motive (or drive) is a need that is sufficiently pressing to direct the person to seek satisfaction. Sigmund Freud assumed people are largely unconscious about the real psychological forces shaping their behaviour… He saw the person as growing up and repressing many urges – these are never eliminated or under perfect control – they emerge in dreams, in slips of the tongue, in neurotic and obsessive behaviour or ultimately in psychoses. Freud suggested that a person does not fully understand his or her motivation.Frederick Herzberg’s two factor theory of satisfiers and dissatisfiers states that the absence of dissatisfiers is not enough – satisfiers must also be present for products to be purchased. In other words, marketers should do their best to avoid dissatisfiers, while identifying major satisfiers or motivators and providing them.Social Factors
Family is the most important consumer buying unit in any society or market… family members being the most important / influential primary reference group.
Family of orientation: parents, siblings – strong influence on consumption habits that last a lifetime.
Family of procreation: spouse, children – where there are issues of dominance and influence in decision including purchase and consumption.Reference Groups are groups with whom a person associates and who influence the person’s attitudes, values, behaviour, consumption habits… Membership group are those that have a direct influence.
Primary group: continuous, informal interaction – family, friends, neighbours, colleagues
Secondary group: religious, professional, trade union…
Aspirational group: those a person hopes to join
Dissociative group: those whose values or behaviour a person rejectsSocial Roles & Status: A role consists of activities a person is expected to perform in society. Each role carries a status. People select products & brands that reflect their role and actual / desired status in society. Marketers need to be aware of the status symbol potential of products & brands.

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